Characterization of variable presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis based on blood ketone levels and major society diagnostic criteria: a new view point on the assessment of diabetic ketoacidosis
Received 25 March 2019
Accepted for publication 24 June 2019
Published 16 July 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1161—1171
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos
Kiyoung Lee,1,2 Ie Byung Park,1,2 Seung Hee Yu,2 Soo-Kyung Kim,3 So Hun Kim,4 Da Hea Seo,4 Seongbin Hong,4 Ja Young Jeon,5 Dae Jung Kim,5 Soo Wan Kim,6 Cheol Soo Choi,1,2 Dae Ho Lee1,2
1Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 5Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
Aim: We aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of blood ketone measurement and to test the performance of the diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) issued by the American Diabetes Association, the Joint British Diabetes Societies, and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology.
Methods: This retrospective analysis included 278 patients with suspected DKA who were hospitalized at 4 university hospitals and aged ≥16 years with a blood glucose level of >200 mg/dL and a blood ketone level of ≥1.0 mmol/L as well as other biochemical data. The patients were categorized into four subgroups (ketosis, typical DKA, atypical DKA, and DKA + lactic acidosis). Atypical DKA in each analysis was defined by our supplementary criteria if the biochemical data did not meet each set of diagnostic criteria from the aforementioned societies.
Results: Blood ketone levels in patients with diabetic ketosis and those with DKA varied widely, 1.05–5.13 mmol/L and 1.02–15.9 mmol/L, respectively. Additionally, there were significant discrepancies between the guidelines in the diagnosis of DKA. Thus, the proportion of patients with atypical DKA ranged from 16.5% to 42.4%. Notably, the in-hospital mortality was comparable between patients with typical and atypical DKA, with a very high mortality in patients with DKA + lactic acidosis (blood lactate >5 mmol/L).
Conclusions: Our results showed that considering variable presentations of DKA, blood ketone data need to be interpreted cautiously along with other biochemical data and suggested that a new system is required to better characterize DKA.
Keywords: Diabetic ketoacidosis, ketone bodies, diagnosis, lactic acidosis, acid base imbalance
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