Caveolin-1 and -2 regulate cell motility in castration-resistant prostate cancer
Received 7 May 2018
Accepted for publication 16 July 2018
Published 3 October 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 135—144
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli
Toyoharu Kamibeppu, Koji Yamasaki, Kozue Nakahara, Takahiro Nagai, Naoki Terada, Hiromasa Tsukino, Shoichiro Mukai, Toshiyuki Kamoto
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Japan
Background: Caveolin (Cav)-1 and Cav-2 are cell membrane proteins, which are structural proteins of caveolae and are reported to be positive regulators of cell survival and metastasis in prostate cancer (PC). In a previous study, we reported that elevated levels of Cav-1 and Cav-2 were significantly associated with PC progression. However, their functions in PC have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined the function of Cav-1 and Cav-2 in PC cell invasiveness and motility.
Materials and methods: We introduced Cav-1- and Cav-2-specific small interfering into PC3 cells to knock-down (KD) both molecules. We also performed cell proliferation assay, wound healing assay, migration assay, and invasion assay using PC3 cells and compared the results between Cav-1-KD, Cav-2-KD, and negative control PC3 cells. In addition, we performed real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and RT2 Profiler PCR Array analysis to identify factors influencing migration.
Results: We observed no significant difference in the proliferative and invasive activities of Cav-1-KD and Cav-2-KD PC3 cells; however, the cell motility was significantly decreased compared with negative control PC3 cells. RT-qPCR revealed that the expression of vimentin and N-cadherin was downregulated in Cav-1-KD PC3 cells. In addition, PCR array revealed a decreased expression of MGAT5, MMP13, and MYCL in Cav-1-KD PC3 and ETV4, FGFR4, and SRC in Cav-2-KD PC3.
Conclusion: Cav-1 and Cav-2 may positively contribute to the upregulation of castration-resistant PC cell migration. Cav-induced regulation of several molecules including vimentin, N-cadherin, MGAT5, MMP13, MYCL, ETV4, FGFR4, and SRC may have an important role in PC3 cell motility. However, further examination will be required.
Keywords: caveolin-1, caveolin-2, CRPC, cell motility
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]