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Cardioprotective Effect of Crude Extract and Solvent Fractions of Urtica simensis Leaves on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Myocardial Injury in Rats

Authors Tesfaye BA, Berhe AH, Wondafrash DZ, Berhe DF

Received 6 October 2020

Accepted for publication 3 February 2021

Published 16 February 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 147—160

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S270038

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bal Lokeshwar


Bekalu Amare Tesfaye, Abera Hadgu Berhe, Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash, Derbew Fikadu Berhe

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Derbew Fikadu Berhe Email derakorem@gmail.com

Background: Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are becoming the major cause of death. Urtica simensis is one of endogenous plant which treats a wide range of disease conditions including heart diseases. However, there is limited information on safety and efficacy of the plant.
Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, the in vivo cardioprotective activity of crude extract and solvent fractions of Urtica simensis leaves on cyclophosphamide-induced myocardial injury.
Methods: The cardioprotective activity of the crude extract, aqueous and hexane fraction of Urtica simensis leaves was evaluated based on anatomical, biochemical and histopathological methods. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the plant was also assayed in terms of free radical scavenging activity (RSA).
Results: Crude extract and solvent fractions of Urtica simensis significantly prevented the deleterious effect of cyclophosphamide on body weight (P< 0.001), heart weight to body ratio (P< 0.01), cardiac biomarkers including troponin I (P< 0.01), alanine transaminase (ALT) (P< 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P< 0.01) and lipid profiles including triglycerides (P< 0.001) and total cholesterol (P< 0.01). The histopathological study confirmed presence of necrosis, oedema and haemorrhage on cyclophosphamide alone-treated groups while the 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of the crude extract and aqueous fraction showed normal cardiocytes. The antioxidant assay of Urtica simensis plant exhibited free radical scavenging activity of inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) for the crude extract with the values of 63.27μg/mL, aqueous fraction with the values of 136.38μg/mL and hexane fraction with the values of 258.70μg/mL.
Conclusion: Crude extract and solvent fractions of Urtica simensis leaves have cardioprotective activities. The cardioprotective effect could be attributed to the antioxidant activity of the plant extracts. However, this requires further in-depth understanding.

Keywords: cardioprotective, cardiac biomarkers crude extract, cyclophosphamide, solvent fractions, Urtica simensis

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