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Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: a brief update

Authors Wang Y, Su H, Gu Y, Song X, Zhao J

Received 9 April 2017

Accepted for publication 13 June 2017

Published 16 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 4065—4079

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S139262

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Ashok Kumar Pandurangan

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Geoffrey Pietersz

Yafei Wang,1,* Hong Su,1,* Yuanliang Gu,1 Xin Song,1 Jinshun Zhao1,2

1Department of Preventative Medicine, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China; 2Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]). Cr(VI), a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V]), tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV]) or Cr(III) via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA–protein cross-links. Although Cr(III) complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI) and/or Cr(III) compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) and chemoprevention with different antioxidants.

Keywords: hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), trivalent chromium, Cr(III), genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, chemoprevention, antioxidant
 

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