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Breast manifestations of systemic diseases

Authors Dilaveri C, MacBride M, Sandhu N, Neal L, Ghosh K, Wahner-Roedler D

Received 25 October 2011

Accepted for publication 28 December 2011

Published 7 February 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 35—43

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S27624

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5


Christina A Dilaveri, Maire Brid Mac Bride, Nicole P Sandhu, Lonzetta Neal, Karthik Ghosh, Dietlind L Wahner-Roedler
Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Abstract: Although much emphasis has been placed on the primary presentations of breast cancer, little focus has been placed on how systemic illnesses may affect the breast. In this article, we discuss systemic illnesses that can manifest in the breast. We summarize the clinical features, imaging, histopathology, and treatment recommendations for endocrine, vascular, systemic inflammatory, infectious, and hematologic diseases, as well as for the extramammary malignancies that can present in the breast. Despite the rarity of these manifestations of systemic disease, knowledge of these conditions is critical to the appropriate evaluation and treatment of patients presenting with breast symptoms.

Keywords: breast, endocrine, hematologic, infectious, vascular

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