Back to Journals » Clinical Interventions in Aging » Volume 8

Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

Authors Muhammad SI, Maznah I, Mahmud RB, Esmaile MF, Zuki ABZ

Received 11 June 2013

Accepted for publication 8 July 2013

Published 24 October 2013 Volume 2013:8 Pages 1421—1431

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S49704

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Sani Ismaila Muhammad,1,2 Ismail Maznah,1,3 Rozi Binti Mahmud,4 Maher Faik Esmaile,5 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria6

1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 5Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 6Department of Pre-clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Background: Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks.
Materials and methods: In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses.
Results: Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P = 0.004).
Conclusion: Our study shows that GBR bioactives increase bone density, which might be via the activation of zinc formation and increased calcium content, and that X-ray edge detection technique is effective in the measurement of bone density and can be employed effectively in this respect.

Keywords: Archimede’s principle, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, X-ray edge detection technique, bone mass density, germinated brown rice bioactives

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Other articles by this author:

Readers of this article also read:

Emerging and future therapies for hemophilia

Carr ME, Tortella BJ

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:245-255

Published Date: 3 September 2015

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010