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BOLD magnetic resonance imaging in nephrology

Authors Hall ME, Jordan JH, Juncos LA, Hundley WG, Hall JE

Received 15 August 2017

Accepted for publication 20 December 2017

Published 13 March 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 103—112


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal

Michael E Hall,1,2 Jennifer H Jordan,3 Luis A Juncos,1,2 W Gregory Hundley,3 John E Hall2

1Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA

Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a non-invasive modality that provides anatomic and physiologic information, is increasingly used for diagnosis of pathophysiologic conditions and for understanding renal physiology in humans. Although functional MR imaging methods were pioneered to investigate the brain, they also offer powerful techniques for investigation of other organ systems such as the kidneys. However, imaging the kidneys provides unique challenges due to potential complications from contrast agents. Therefore, development of non-contrast techniques to study kidney anatomy and physiology is important. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MR is a non-contrast imaging technique that provides functional information related to renal tissue oxygenation in various pathophysiologic conditions. Here we discuss technical considerations, clinical uses and future directions for use of BOLD MR as well as complementary MR techniques to better understand renal pathophysiology. Our intent is to summarize kidney BOLD MR applications for the clinician rather than focusing on the complex physical challenges that functional MR imaging encompasses; however, we briefly discuss some of those issues.

Keywords: functional MRI, kidney, oxygenation, chronic kidney disease

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