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Biomedical Applications of TiO2 Nanostructures: Recent Advances

Authors Jafari S, Mahyad B, Hashemzadeh H, Janfaza S, Gholikhani T, Tayebi L

Received 12 February 2020

Accepted for publication 16 April 2020

Published 14 May 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 3447—3470


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Sevda Jafari,1,2 Baharak Mahyad,3 Hadi Hashemzadeh,4 Sajjad Janfaza,4 Tooba Gholikhani,2 Lobat Tayebi5

1Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran; 2Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Science and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran; 4Department of Nanobiotechnology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 14117, Islamic Republic of Iran; 5Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233, USA

Correspondence: Hadi Hashemzadeh; Sajjad Janfaza
Department of Nanobiotechnology, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, Tehran 14117, Islamic Republic of Iran
Tel +98 2182880000

Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are one of the most plentiful compounds that have emerged in various fields of technology such as medicine, energy and biosensing. Various TiO2 nanostructures (nanotubes [NTs] and nanowires) have been employed in photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensing applications, greatly enhancing the detection of targets. TiO2 nanostructures, used as reinforced material or coatings for the bare surface of titanium implants, are excellent additive materials to compensate titanium implants deficiencies—like poor surface interaction with surrounding tissues—by providing nanoporous surfaces and hierarchical structures. These nanostructures can also be loaded by diversified drugs—like osteoporosis drugs, anticancer and antibiotics—and used as local drug delivery systems. Furthermore, TiO2 nanostructures and their derivatives are new emerging antimicrobial agents to overcome human pathogenic microorganisms. However, like all other nanomaterials, toxicity and biocompatibility of TiO2 nanostructures must be considered. This review highlights recent advances, along with the properties and numerous applications of TiO2-based nanostructure compounds in nano biosensing, medical implants, drug delivery and antibacterial fields. Moreover, in the present study, some recent advances accomplished on the pharmaceutical applications of TiO2 nanostructures, as well as its toxicity and biocompatibility, are presented.

Keywords: titanium dioxide nanomaterial, drug release, antibacterial, implants, biosensors, nanotoxicity

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