Biomarkers in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors
Isidro Machado,1 José Antonio López-Guerrero,2 Antonio Llombart-Bosch3
1Pathology Department, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain; 2Molecular Biology Department, Instituto Valenciano de Oncología, Valencia, Spain; 3Pathology Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Abstract: This review provides a concise analysis of the well-characterized phenotypic and biological biomarkers having diagnostic and prognostic significance in the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors. Of particular interest, and potentially high clinical relevance, are studies of cell cycle biomarkers, growth signaling pathway expression, biomarkers related with angiogenesis, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, we discuss findings of specific interest from recent biomarker studies, including copy number alterations, minimal residual disease and predictive biomarkers, and biological targets such as CD133, insulin-like growth factor 1, and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1. In conclusion, several diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors have been published in recent years; nevertheless, these all need to be validated in a series of prospective studies. The findings that only a small proportion of patients with relapsed Ewing sarcoma family of tumors respond to targeted therapies serve as an example of the critical need for predictive biomarkers in this disease.
Keywords: Ewing sarcoma, biomarkers, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology
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