Biomarkers for renal transplantation: where are we?
Fangmin Ge,1–3 Qiaoding Dai,4 Weihua Gong5
1Hospital Administration Office, 2Department of Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3Health Bureau of Shangcheng District Hangzhou, 4Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, 5Department of Surgery, Transplant International Research Centre, Second Affiliated Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
Abstract: Although surgical techniques, post-transplant care medicine, and immunosuppressants have been greatly improved, permanent acceptance of renal allograft remains a clinical challenge owing to the appearance of various influencing factors. To predict graft dysfunction, development of noninvasive biomarkers is becoming a highlighted research topic in the field of renal transplantation, which provides a possibility for physicians to give preemptive rescue treatment. From the viewpoint of diagnostic techniques, repetitive sampling is prerequisite to identify applicable biomarkers in the clinic. Early biomarkers can be used to dynamically monitor renal graft status and accurately predict transplant outcome independent of various confounders. This review highlights recent studies on the predictive value of biomarkers and methods to quantify biomarkers for monitoring kidney transplant. It is important to analyze and compare different biomarkers for living, and nonliving donors. Analysis of identified clinically relevant biomarkers will advance our understanding of distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms of transplantation and provide insight into developing novel potential approaches to induce transplant tolerance.
Keywords: biomarkers, renal transplantation, diagnostic techniques, reversible, preemptive treatment
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