Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 7

Bioconjugates of PAMAM dendrimers with trans-retinal, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate

Authors Filipowicz A, Wolowiec S

Received 23 May 2012

Accepted for publication 29 July 2012

Published 6 September 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 4819—4828


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 6

A Filipowicz, S Wołowiec

Department of Cosmetology, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland

Background: Bioconjugates of a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) G3 dendrimer and an aldehyde were synthesized as carriers for vitamins A and B6, and the bioavailability of these vitamins for skin nutrition was investigated.
Methods: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible methods were used to characterize the structure of the bioconjugates and for monitoring release of pyridoxal (Pyr) and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) from these bioconjugates in vitro. A skin model permeation of bioconjugates was also studied in a Franz chamber.
Results: A transdermal G3 PAMAM dendrimer was used to synthesize bioconjugates with trans-retinal (Ret), pyridoxal (Pyr), or PLP. These nanomolecules, containing up to four covalently linked Ret, Pyr, or PLP (G34Ret, G34Pyr, and G34PLP), were able to permeate the skin, as demonstrated in vitro using a model skin membrane. PLP and Pyr bound to a macromolecular vehicle were active cofactors for glutamic pyruvic transaminase, as shown by 1H NMR spectral monitoring of the progress of the L-alanine + α-ketoglutarate → glutamic acid + pyruvic acid reaction.
Conclusion: PAMAM-PLP, PAMAM-Pyr, and PAMAM-Ret bioconjugates are able to permeate the skin. PLP and Pyr are available as cofactors for glutamic pyruvic transaminase.

Keywords: PAMAM, trans-retinal, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxal, transamination

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Other article by this author:

In vitro cytotoxicity of the ternary PAMAM G3–pyridoxal–biotin bioconjugate

Uram Ł, Szuster M, Gargasz K, Filipowicz A, Wałajtys-Rode E, Wołowiec S

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013, 8:4707-4720

Published Date: 11 December 2013

Readers of this article also read:

Biocompatible nanocomposite for PET/MRI hybrid imaging

Locatelli E, Gil L, Israel LL, Passoni L, Naddaka M, Pucci A, Reese T, Gomez-Vallejo V, Milani P, Matteoli M, Llop J, Lellouche JP, Comes Franchini M

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:6021-6033

Published Date: 12 December 2012

Degradable copolymer based on amphiphilic N-octyl-N-quatenary chitosan and low-molecular weight polyethylenimine for gene delivery

Liu CC, Zhu Q, Wu WH, Xu XL, Wang XY, Gao S, Liu KH

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5339-5350

Published Date: 8 October 2012

Characterization of drug-release kinetics in trabecular bone from titania nanotube implants

Aw MS, Khalid KA, Gulati K, Atkins GJ, Pivonka P, Findlay DM, Losic D

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4883-4892

Published Date: 12 September 2012

Cationic lipid-coated PEI/DNA polyplexes with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity for gene delivery into mesenchymal stem cells

Song HM, Wang G, He B, Li L, Li CX, Lai YS, Xu XH, Gu ZW

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4637-4648

Published Date: 22 August 2012

Biofunctionalization of a titanium surface with a nano-sawtooth structure regulates the behavior of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

Zhang WJ, Li ZH, Liu Y, Ye DX, Li JH, Xu LY, Wei B, Zhang XL, Liu XY, Jiang XQ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4459-4472

Published Date: 13 August 2012

Actively-targeted LTVSPWY peptide-modified magnetic nanoparticles for tumor imaging

Jie L-Y, Cai L-L, Wang L-J, Ying X-Y, Yu R-S, Zhang M-M,Du Y-Z

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:3981-3989

Published Date: 24 July 2012

Interaction of cancer cells with magnetic nanoparticles modified by methacrylamido-folic acid

Nagehan Saltan, H Mehtap Kutlu, Deniz Hür

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:477-484

Published Date: 28 February 2011

Simultaneous, noninvasive, and transdermal extraction of urea and homocysteine by reverse iontophoresis

Congo Tak-Shing Ching, Tzong-Ru Chou, Tai-Ping Sun, et al

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2011, 6:417-423

Published Date: 20 February 2011

A need for evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the use of heparins in the elderly

Isabelle Gouin-Thibault, Virginie Siguret, Eric Pautas

Clinical Interventions in Aging 2010, 5:119-121

Published Date: 13 April 2010