Biocompatibility of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells
Daozhen Chen,1,3,* Qiusha Tang,2,* Xiangdong Li,3,* Xiaojin Zhou,1 Jia Zang,1 Wen-qun Xue,1 Jing-ying Xiang,1 Cai-qin Guo1
1Central Laboratory, Wuxi Hospital for Matemaland Child Health Care Affiliated Medical School of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province; 2Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, Medical College, Southeast University, Jiangsu Province; 3The People’s Hospital of Aheqi County, Xinjiang, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis and biocompatibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and investigate their therapeutic effects when combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on cultured MCF-7 cancer cells.
Methods: Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared using a coprecipitation method. The appearance, structure, phase composition, functional groups, surface charge, magnetic susceptibility, and release in vitro were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Blood toxicity, in vitro toxicity, and genotoxicity were investigated. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] and flow cytometry assays.
Results: Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the shapes of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were approximately spherical, with diameters of about 26.1 ± 5.2 nm. Only the spinel phase was indicated in a comparison of the x-ray diffraction data with Joint Corporation of Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) X-ray powder diffraction files. The O-to-Fe ratio of the Fe3O4 was determined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis, and approximated pure Fe3O4. The vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loop suggested that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature. MTT experiments showed that the toxicity of the material in mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines was between Grade 0 to Grade 1, and that the material lacked hemolysis activity. The acute toxicity (LD50) was 8.39 g/kg. Micronucleus testing showed no genotoxic effects. Pathomorphology and blood biochemistry testing demonstrated that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles had no effect on the main organs and blood biochemistry in a rabbit model. MTT and flow cytometry assays revealed that Fe3O4 nano magnetofluid thermotherapy inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation, and its inhibitory effect was dose-dependent according to the Fe3O4 nano magnetofluid concentration.
Conclusion: The Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared in this study have good biocompatibility and are suitable for further application in tumor hyperthermia.
Keywords: characterization, biocompatibility, Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia
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