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Binding of plasma proteins to titanium dioxide nanotubes with different diameters

Authors Kulkarni M, Flašker A, Lokar M, Mrak-Poljšak K, Mazare A, Artenjak A, Čučnik S, Kralj S, Velikonja A, Schmuki P, Kralj-Iglič V, Sodin-Semrl S, Iglič A

Received 14 November 2014

Accepted for publication 5 January 2015

Published 18 February 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 1359—1373

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S77492

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 7

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Mukta Kulkarni,1,* Ajda Flašker,1,* Maruša Lokar,1 Katjuša Mrak-Poljšak,2 Anca Mazare,3 Andrej Artenjak,4 Saša Čučnik,2 Slavko Kralj,5 Aljaž Velikonja,1 Patrik Schmuki,3 Veronika Kralj-Iglič,6 Snezna Sodin-Semrl,2,7 Aleš Iglič1

1Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 2Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 4Sandoz Biopharmaceuticals Mengeš, Lek Pharmaceuticals dd, Menges, Slovenia; 5Department for Materials Synthesis, Institute Jožef Stefan (IJS), Ljubljana, Slovenia; 6Faculty of Health Studies, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 7Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Science and Information Technology, University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia

*These authors contributed equally to this work


Abstract: Titanium and titanium alloys are considered to be one of the most applicable materials in medical devices because of their suitable properties, most importantly high corrosion resistance and the specific combination of strength with biocompatibility. In order to improve the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces, the current report initially focuses on specifying the topography of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes (NTs) by electrochemical anodization. The zeta potential (ζ-potential) of NTs showed a negative value and confirmed the agreement between the measured and theoretically predicted dependence of ζ-potential on salt concentration, whereby the absolute value of ζ-potential diminished with increasing salt concentrations. We investigated binding of various plasma proteins with different sizes and charges using the bicinchoninic acid assay and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results showed effective and comparatively higher protein binding to NTs with 100 nm diameters (compared to 50 or 15 nm). We also showed a dose-dependent effect of serum amyloid A protein binding to NTs. These results and theoretical calculations of total available surface area for binding of proteins indicate that the largest surface area (also considering the NT lengths) is available for 100 nm NTs, with decreasing surface area for 50 and 15 nm NTs. These current investigations will have an impact on increasing the binding ability of biomedical devices in the body leading to increased durability of biomedical devices.

Keywords: protein binding, serum amyloid A, β2-glycoprotein I, immunoglobulin G, histone IIA

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