Bactericidal effect of S-nitrosothiols against clinical isolates from keratitis
Authors Cariello AJ, Bispo P, Souza, Pignatari, de Oliveira MG, Hofling AL
Received 8 June 2012
Accepted for publication 10 September 2012
Published 20 November 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 1907—1914
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 4
Angelino Julio Cariello,1 Paulo José Martins Bispo,2 Gabriela Freitas Pereira de Souza,3 Antonio Carlos Campos Pignatari,2 Marcelo Ganzarolli de Oliveira,3 Ana Luisa Hofling-Lima1
1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, 3Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of two nitric oxide donors, ie, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC), against clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis.
Methods: Reference broth microdilution assays were performed to determine the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations for GSNO and SNAC against four American Type Culture Collection strains and 52 clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis as follows: 14 (26.9%) Pseudomonas species; 13 (25.0%) coagulase-negative Staphylococci; 10 (19.2%) Staphylococcus aureus; nine (17.3%) Serratia marcescens; and six (11.5%) Enterobacter aerogenes. Sterility control and bacterial growth control were also performed.
Results: SNAC showed lower minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations than GSNO for all clinical isolates from patients with infectious keratitis. For Gram-positive bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 2.1 ± 1.3 and 8.6 ± 3.8 mM for SNAC and 4.6 ± 3.2 and 21.5 ± 12.5 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01). For Gram-negative bacteria, mean minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 3.3 ± 1.4 and 6.1 ± 3.4 mM for SNAC and 12.4 ± 5.4 and 26.5 ± 10.1 mM for GSNO (P < 0.01). The minimum bactericidal to inhibitory concentration ratio was ≤8 in 100% of all isolates tested for SNAC and in 94.2% tested for GSNO.
Conclusions: SNAC and GSNO had effective inhibitory and bactericidal effects against bacterial isolates from keratitis. SNAC showed greater antimicrobial activity than GSNO against all bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the inhibitory and bactericidal effects of the S-nitrosothiols.
Keywords: antimicrobial activity, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine, S-nitrosoglutathione, nitric oxide donors, infectious keratitis
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