Association of medications for lifestyle-related diseases with reflux esophagitis
Authors Asaoka D, Nagahara A, Hojo M, Matsumoto K, Ueyama H, Matsumoto K, Izumi K, Takeda T, Komori H, Akazawa Y, Shimada Y, Osada T, Watanabe S
Received 9 June 2016
Accepted for publication 28 July 2016
Published 4 October 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 1507—1515
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Garry Walsh
Daisuke Asaoka,1 Akihito Nagahara,2 Mariko Hojo,1 Kenshi Matsumoto,1 Hiroya Ueyama,1 Kohei Matsumoto,1 Kentaro Izumi,1 Tsutomu Takeda,1 Hiroyuki Komori,1 Yoichi Akazawa,1 Yuji Shimada,2 Taro Osada,1 Sumio Watanabe1
1Department of Gastroenterology, University of Juntendo, School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan
Background: Because of a change in lifestyle, especially adoption of westernized eating habits, lifestyle-related diseases have become increasingly prevalent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medications for lifestyle-related diseases with reflux esophagitis (RE).
Methods: We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional retrospective study of consecutive outpatients who received an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in our department from February 2008 to November 2014, which was performed by one specialist who was a member of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society. We investigated the patient profile, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection status, medications for lifestyle-related diseases (including calcium channel blockers, statins, and bisphosphonates), and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings (RE, hiatal hernia, Barrett’s mucosa, and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy [EGA]). Patients with gastrectomy, peptic ulcer disease, gastric or esophageal malignant disease, and those who used proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2 receptor antagonists were excluded. We divided the subjects into a group without RE (RE(–)) and a RE (RE(+)) group as judged by endoscopy, and investigated the risk factors for RE.
Results: Of 1,744 consecutive cases, 590 cases (300 males and 290 females; mean age 60.5±13.2 years) were eligible. RE(–) and RE(+) cases numbered 507 and 83, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed significant positive associations of RE with male sex, body mass index (BMI), calcium channel blockers, Barrett’s mucosa, hiatal hernia and negative associations of RE with H. pylori positivity, EGA. Multivariate analysis showed significant positive associations of RE with BMI (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10–1.29), use of calcium channel blockers (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.16–3.87), Barrett’s mucosa (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 01.64–5.38), hiatal hernia (OR: 3.13, 95% CI: 1.79–5.47) and negative associations of RE with H. pylori positivity (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.07–0.57), use of statins (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18–0.96), and EGA (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.98).
Conclusion: Calcium channel blockers were positively associated with RE and statins were negatively associated with RE, while bisphosphonates were not associated with RE.
Keywords: reflux esophagitis, calcium channel blockers, statins, bisphosphonates, H. pylori, hiatal hernia, Barrett’s mucosa, endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy
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