Back to Journals » Local and Regional Anesthesia » Volume 14

Assessment of Morphological and Morphometrical Variations of Sacral Hiatus in Dry Human Sacrum in Ethiopia

Authors Abera Z, Girma A, Bekele A, Oumer M

Received 2 November 2020

Accepted for publication 12 February 2021

Published 24 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 25—32


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Stefan Wirz

Zerihun Abera,1 Amanuel Girma,2 Assegedech Bekele,2 Mohammed Oumer2,3

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arsi University, Arsi, Oromia, Ethiopia; 2Department of Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Amhara, Ethiopia; 3Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Amhara, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Amanuel Girma Tel +251 913554235

Background: The sacral hiatus is an opening present at the lower end of the sacral canal. The anatomy of the sacral hiatus and its variations are clinically important during administration of caudal epidural block (CEB) in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedic, urology and general surgical practices. The success and reliability of CEB depends upon the sound knowledge of anatomical variations of the sacral hiatus.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and morphometric variation of the sacral hiatus in dry human sacrum.
Methods: An institution-based observational cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess morphological and morphometric variations of the sacral hiatus in 61 dry human sacrum specimens at the anatomy departments of Gondar, Addis Ababa, Hawassa and Jimma universities and Hayat and Korea Medical Colleges in Addis Ababa. Descriptive analysis was applied to analyze the data.
Results: The most commonly recorded shape of the sacral hiatus is inverted-V (41%) followed by inverted-U (37.7%). The least common was complete bifida (1.6%). The apex of the sacral hiatus is mostly seen at the level of the 4th sacral vertebra (60.7%), while the base is commonly located at the level of the 5th sacral vertebra (78.7%). The mean length of the sacral hiatus is 22.67 ± 11.84 mm. The mean transverse width and mean anteroposterior diameter of the sacral hiatus at the apex are 13.14 mm ± 2.85 mm and 5.57 mm ± 1.53 mm, respectively.
Conclusion: The sacral hiatus has anatomical variations. These variations should be kept in mind during administration of caudal epidural anesthesia and analgesia.

Keywords: assessment, sacrum, sacral hiatus, variations, Ethiopia

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]