Water-soluble egg membrane enhances the immunoactivating properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves
Authors Benson KF, Newman RA, Jensen GS
Received 7 June 2016
Accepted for publication 10 August 2016
Published 3 November 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 393—403
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg
Kathleen F Benson,1 Robert A Newman,2,3 Gitte S Jensen1
1NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, OR, 2Department of Experimental Therapeutics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, 3Nerium Biotechnology Inc, San Antonio, TX, USA
Objective: To evaluate a blend of two natural ingredients on immune parameters relevant for their current topical use and potential support of microcirculation in skin tissue.
Materials and methods: A blend (BL) of Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8i, oleandrin-free) and hydrolyzed water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) was applied to human whole-blood cultures for 24 hours, with each separate ingredient serving as a control. Immune-cell subsets were analyzed for expression levels of the activation markers CD69 and CD25. Culture supernatants were analyzed for cytokines, chemokines, and immunoregulating peptides.
Results: BL increased CD69 expression on lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD3–CD56+ natural killer cells, and CD25 expression on natural killer cells. The number of CD69+CD25+ lymphocytes increased in cultures treated with BL and the separate ingredients. BL triggered production of multiple cytokines and chemokines, where CC chemokines MIP1α and MIP3α, as well as cytokines involved in wound healing – Groα, Groβ, ENA78, and fractalkine – reached levels manyfold above treatment with either NAE-8i or WSEM alone.
Conclusion: Data on BL showed that WSEM strongly enhanced NAE-8i’s effects on immunoactivation in vitro. This has potential relevance for support of immunity in skin tissue, including antibacterial and antiviral defense mechanisms, wrinkle reduction, and wound care.
Keywords: chemokines, cytokines, leukocyte activation
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