APRESS: apical regulatory super system, serotonin, and dopamine interaction
This paper has been retracted.
Marty Hinz 1, Alvin Stein 2, Thomas Uncini 3
1Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc, Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Labs, Duluth, MN, USA
Background: The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are known to exist in two separate states: the endogenous state and the competitive inhibition state. The presence of the competitive inhibition state has been known to science for many years, but from a functional standpoint it has been noted in the literature as being "meaningless."
Methods: A large database of monoamine transporter response to amino acid precursor administration variations with clinical outcomes was accumulated. In the process, a new organic cation transporter (OCT) model has been published, and OCT functional status determination along with amino acid precursor manipulation methods have been invented and refined.
Results: Methodology was developed whereby manipulation of the OCT, in the competitive inhibition state, is carried out in a predictable manner. This, in turn, has disproved the long-held assertion that the monoamine competitive inhibition state is functionally meaningless.
Conclusion: The most significant aspect of this paper is the documentation of newly recognized relationships between serotonin and dopamine. When transport of serotonin and dopamine are both in the competitive inhibition state, manipulation of the concentrations of one will lead to predictable changes in concentrations of the other. From a functional standpoint, processes regulated and controlled by changes to only serotonin can now be controlled by changes to dopamine, and vice versa, in a predictable manner.
Keywords: catecholamine, monoamine, competitive inhibition state
Expression of Concern for this paper has been published
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