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Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

Authors Khan M, Khan M, Al-Marri A, Al-Warthan A, Alkhathlan HZ, Siddiqui MRH, Nayak V, Kamal A, Adil SF

Received 20 November 2015

Accepted for publication 29 December 2015

Published 7 March 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 873—883

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S100903

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Xian Xu

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster


Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1

1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India

Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

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