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Antimicrobial activities of ceftazidime–avibactam, ceftolozane–tazobactam, and other agents against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from intensive care units in Taiwan: results from the Surveillance of Multicenter Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan in 2016

Authors Liao CH, Lee NY, Tang HJ, Lee SSJ, Lin CF, Lu PL, Wu JJ, Ko WC, Lee WS, Hsueh PR

Received 6 November 2018

Accepted for publication 22 January 2019

Published 4 March 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 545—552


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Chun-Hsing Liao,1,2 Na-Yao Lee,3 Hung-Jen Tang,4,5 Susan Shin-Jung Lee,6,7 Chin-Fu Lin,8 Po-Liang Lu,9–11 Jiunn-Jong Wu,12 Wen-Chien Ko,13 Wen-Sen Lee,14 Po-Ren Hsueh15,16

1Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Medicine, Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; 5Department of Health and Nutrition, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 7Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 8Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 9Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 10Department of Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 11Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 12Department of Biotechnology and Laboratory Science in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 13Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 14Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wan Fang Medical Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; 15Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 16Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinically important Gram-negative bacteria from seven intensive care units in Taiwan in 2016.
Materials and methods: In total, 300 non-duplicate isolates of Escherichia coli (n=100), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=100), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=100) collected from 300 patients were studied. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these isolates to antimicrobial agents were determined using the broth microdilution method. Carbapenemase-encoding genes (blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48-like) were studied for the isolates that were not susceptible to any carbapenems. Sequencing analysis of the mcr genes (mcr-1–5) was conducted for all isolates with colistin MICs ≥4 mg/L.
Results: Ertapenem non-susceptibility was detected in 3% (n=3) E. coli and 12% (n=12) K. ­pneumoniae isolates. The susceptibility rates of imipenem, ceftazidime–avibactam (CAZ–AVB), and ceftolozane–tazobactam (CLZ–TAZ) were 99%, 99%, and 88%, respectively, for E. coli, 91%, 100%, and 80%, respectively, for K. pneumoniae, and 66%, 91%, and 93%, respectively, for P. aeruginosa. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were not detected in E. coli, were detected in four (33.3%) K. pneumoniae isolates that were not susceptible to ertapenem (three harboring blaKPC and one harboring blaOXA-48-like), and were not detected in P. aeruginosa isolates that were not susceptible to imipenem. One K. pneumoniae isolate was resistant to colistin (MIC 4 mg/L) and negative for mcr genes.
Conclusion: CAZ–AVB exhibited excellent activity against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and CLZ–TAZ exhibited good activity against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: carbapenem resistance, second-generation, β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenemase-encoding genes, mcr

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