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Antifungal, optical, and mechanical properties of polymethylmethacrylate material incorporated with silanized zinc oxide nanoparticles

Authors Kamonkhantikul K, Arksornnukit M, Takahashi H

Received 10 January 2017

Accepted for publication 1 March 2017

Published 27 March 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 2353—2360

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S132116

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Krid Kamonkhantikul,1 Mansuang Arksornnukit,1 Hidekazu Takahashi2

1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Oral Biomaterials Engineering, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan

Background: Fungal infected denture, which is typically composed of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), is a common problem for a denture wearer, especially an elderly patient with limited manual dexterity. Therefore, increasing the antifungal effect of denture by incorporating surface modification nanoparticles into the PMMA, while retaining its mechanical properties, is of interest.
Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate antifungal, optical, and mechanical properties of heat-cured PMMA incorporated with different amounts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnOnps) with or without methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane modification.
Materials and methods: Specimens made from heat-cured PMMA containing 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) nonsilanized (Nosi) or silanized (Si) ZnOnps were evaluated. Specimens without filler served as control. The fungal assay was performed placing a Candida albicans suspension on the PMMA surface for 2 h, then Sabouraud Dextrose Broth was added, and growth after 24 h was determined by counting colony forming units on agar plates. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color in L* (brightness), a* (red-green), b* (yellow-blue) and opacity of the experimental groups. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test on universal testing machine after 37°C water storage for 48 h and 1 month.
Results: The antifungal, optical, and mechanical properties of the PMMA incorporated with ZnOnps changed depending on the amount. With the same amount of ZnOnps, the silanized groups demonstrated a greater reduction in C. albicans compared with the Nosi groups. The color difference (ΔE) and opacity of the Nosi groups were greater compared with the Si groups. The flexural strength of the Si groups, except for the 1.25% group, was significantly greater compared with the Nosi groups.
Conclusion: PMMA incorporated with Si ZnOnps, particularly with 2.5% Si ZnOnps, had a greater antifungal effect, less color differences, and opacity compared with Nosi ZnOnps, while retaining its mechanical properties.

Keywords:
antifungal effect, optical properties, mechanical properties, silanized zinc oxide nanoparticles

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