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Annihilation of Leishmania by daylight responsive ZnO nanoparticles: a temporal relationship of reactive oxygen species-induced lipid and protein oxidation

Authors Nadhman A, Khan MI, Nazir S, Khan M, Shahnaz G, Raza A, Shams D, Yasinzai M

Received 28 January 2016

Accepted for publication 12 March 2016

Published 31 May 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 2451—2461

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S105195

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Akhtar Nadhman,1–3 Malik Ihsanullah Khan,1,2 Samina Nazir,4 Momin Khan,1,5 Gul Shahnaz,6 Abida Raza,2 Dilawar Farhan Shams,7 Masoom Yasinzai1,3

1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, 2Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute, 3Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences (CIRBS), International Islamic University, 4Nanosciences and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, 5Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, 6Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 7Department of Environmental Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan

Abstract: Lipid and protein oxidation are well-known manifestations of free radical activity and oxidative stress. The current study investigated extermination of Leishmania tropica promastigotes induced by lipid and protein oxidation with reactive oxygen species produced by PEGylated metal-based nanoparticles. The synthesized photodynamic therapy-based doped and nondoped zinc oxide nanoparticles were activated in daylight that produced reactive oxygen species in the immediate environment. Lipid and protein oxidation did not occur in dark. The major lipid peroxidation derivatives comprised of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, and malondialdehyde whereas water, ethane, methanol, and ethanol were found as the end products. Proteins were oxidized to carbonyls, hydroperoxides, and thiol degrading products. Interestingly, lipid hydroperoxides were produced by more than twofold of the protein hydroperoxides, indicating higher degradation of lipids compared to proteins. The in vitro evidence represented a significant contribution of the involvement of both lipid and protein oxidation in the annihilated antipromastigote effect of nanoparticles.

Keywords: lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, Leishmania tropica, zinc oxide (ZnO), nanoparticles, reactive oxygen species (ROS), photodynamic therapy (PDT), doping

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