Analysis of the Refractive Profile of Children with Oculocutaneous Albinism versus an Age-Matched Non-Albino Group
Authors Sayed KM, Abdellah MM, Kamel AG
Received 10 October 2020
Accepted for publication 8 December 2020
Published 8 January 2021 Volume 2021:15 Pages 73—78
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Khulood Muhammad Sayed, Marwa Mahmoud Abdellah, Ahmad Gad Kamel
The Department of Ophthalmology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt
Correspondence: Marwa Mahmoud Abdellah
The Department of Ophthalmology, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag 82524, Egypt
Purpose: To find out and analyze the points of difference in the refractive profile between children with complete oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and an age-matched, non-albino group seeking paediatric ophthalmic examination.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 164 infants and young children in Paediatric Ophthalmology Center, Sohag City, Egypt. Informed consent was obtained from the participants’ guardians. The study divided the population into 2 equal groups: albino group = 82 eyes, non-albino group = 82 eyes. Cycloplegic refraction and average keratometric measurements using the hand-held autokeratometer were taken for the study groups.
Results: In the albino group, astigmatism and hypermetropia were the most common refractive errors, 100% and 62% respectively, with significant difference between both groups. Mean total (TA), corneal (CA) and lenticular astigmatism (LA) were significantly higher in albino group (P< 0.05). All albino eyes were high astigmats (≥ 1.25 D).
Conclusion: This study is novel in being comparative and includes the largest sample size ever reported for albino eyes of infants and children. High WTR astigmatism is the most prevalent refractive error in albinos with an overall bias toward hyperopia, but extreme errors (>− 11.00D myopia or >+10.00D hyperopia) are not common. Albino eyes have a significantly higher degree of LA which compensates for the high CA to decrease the amount of TA. The study emphasizes the importance of refraction examination and visual rehabilitation for OCA children as early as possible to reduce eye morbidity-associated low vision.
Keywords: refractive error, albinism, young children, autorefractometer, non-albinos