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Analysis of the cytotoxicity of hierarchical nanoporous graphenic carbon against human glioblastoma grade IV cells

Authors Jaworski S, Biniecka P, Bugajska, Daniluk K, Dyjak S, Strojny B, Kutwin M, Wierzbicki M, Grodzik M, Chwalibog A

Received 1 March 2017

Accepted for publication 24 April 2017

Published 18 May 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 3839—3849


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Sławomir Jaworski,1 Paulina Biniecka,1 Żaneta Bugajska,1 Karolina Daniluk,1 Sławomir Dyjak,2 Barbara Strojny,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Marta Grodzik,1 André Chwalibog3

1Division of Nanobiotechnology, Warsaw University of Life Science, 2Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract: A newly produced hierarchical, nanoporous carbon (HNC) material is studied for the first time in a biological model. The material consists of uniform particles and is characterized by a mean diameter <150 nm, a high specific surface area of 1,000 m2/g, well-developed porosity, and high electrical conductivity. These unique properties and ability to transfer charge create a possibility of employing HNC as a moderator of tumor cell growth. As the charge of HNC may interfere with cell membranes by adhesion and by bonding with cell receptors, it may block the supply of nutrients. The interactions of HNC with the U87 cells can also lead to the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activate apoptotic mechanisms in cancer cells. The investigation was performed using U87 human glioblastoma and PCS-201–010 normal fibroblast cell lines, where cell morphology and ultrastructure, viability, ROS production, type of cell death, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and the expression of genes engaged in apoptosis pathways are studied. The results demonstrate that cytotoxicity of HNC particles increases with concentration from 5 to 100 µg/mL by activation of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, without inducing necrosis. Our research indicates the potential applicability of HNC in cancer therapy.

Keywords: toxicity, glioblastoma, graphenic carbon material, nanoparticles, U87 cells, fibroblast cells

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