Agreement between retinal images obtained via smartphones and images obtained with retinal cameras or fundoscopic exams – systematic review and meta-analysis
Received 31 July 2018
Accepted for publication 10 October 2018
Published 11 December 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 2581—2589
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Manuel AP Vilela,1,2 Felipe M Valença,1 Pedro KM Barreto,1 Carlos EV Amaral,1 Lúcia C Pellanda1,2
1Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 2Institute of Cardiology, Cardiology University Foundation, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Background: Smartphone fundoscopy is a new option for visualizing the ocular fundus but must be validated before being included in population-based examinations. Our aim was to evaluate the quality of fundoscopic images obtained via smartphone and to compare their agreement with retinal camera images or clinical examination.
Methods: The database for this study included all observational studies with smartphone fundoscopy that have comparative analyses with the gold standard methods.
Results: Out of 121 potentially relevant studies, nine were included in this analysis, compris- ing a total of 4,219 eyes. Mean age was 56.6 years (SD±8.5). Combined kappa (κ) agreement statistics were equal to 77.77% (95% CI: 70.34%, 83.70%). No heterogeneity was measured by random effects (I2=zero).
Conclusion: Fundoscopic images obtained by using smartphones have substantial agreement with gold standards for clinical or photographic exams.
Keywords: smartphones, fundoscopy, ophthalmoscopy
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