Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 14

Advances in nanomedicine for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

Authors Xi Y, Jiang T, Chaurasiya B, Zhou Y, Yu J, Wen J, Shen Y, Ye X, Webster TJ

Received 18 May 2019

Accepted for publication 13 August 2019

Published 29 October 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 8521—8542


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Dongwoo Khang

Yanhai Xi,1,* Tingwang Jiang,2,* Birendra Chaurasiya,3 Yanyan Zhou,1 Jiangmin Yu,1 Jiankun Wen,1 Yan Shen,3 Xiaojian Ye,1 Thomas J Webster4

1Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Institution of Laboratory Medicine of Changshu, Changshu, Jiangsu 215500, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Research Development and Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Excipients and Generic Drugs, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Xiaojian Ye
Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Shanghai, MA 200003, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 1 381 734 6934

Thomas J Webster
Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Tel +1 617 373 6585

Abstract: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a complex disease characterized by inflammation and ankylosis primarily at the cartilage–bone interface. The disease is more common in young males and risk factors include both genetic and environmental. While the pathogenesis of AS is not completely understood, it is thought to be an immune-mediated disease involving inflammatory cellular infiltrates, and human leukocyte antigen-B27. Currently, there is no specific diagnostic technique available for this disease; therefore conventional diagnostic approaches such as clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and imaging techniques are used. There are various review papers that have been published on conventional treatment approaches, and in this review work, we focus on the more promising nanomedicine-based treatment modalities to move this field forward.

Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, pathogenesis, genetic factors, environmental factors, treatment approaches

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]