Advances in antiplatelet technologies to improve cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: a review of ticagrelor
Estella M Davis, Jon T Knezevich, Robyn M Teply
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, NE, USA
Abstract: Antiplatelet therapy is widely used with proven benefit for the prevention of further ischemic cardiac complications in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Treatment guidelines for acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention now recommend the use of oral antiplatelet agents including ticagrelor, prasugrel, or clopidogrel in combination with aspirin to comprise dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of recurrent ischemic events. The limitations of conventional antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel or prasugrel include the potential for low response to clopidogrel identified through platelet reactivity or genetic testing, increased risk of bleeding with prasugrel, or slower return to normal platelet activity in patients who received either prasugrel or clopidogrel prior to emergent or planned surgical procedures. This review will discuss the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of ticagrelor in comparison to conventional P2Y12 receptor inhibitors and its utility in patients identified as low responders to clopidogrel. Completed clinical studies and substudies comparing ticagrelor to clopidogrel and ongoing clinical trials evaluating ticagrelor in acute coronary syndrome patients will also be reviewed.
Keywords: ticagrelor, antiplatelet, acute coronary syndrome, ST elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation MI, percutaneous coronary intervention
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