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Activation of stem cell up-regulation/mobilization: a cardiovascular risk in both mice and humans with implications for liver disease, psoriasis and SLE

Authors Gemery JM, Forauer AR, Hoffer EK

Received 5 March 2019

Accepted for publication 11 June 2019

Published 26 August 2019 Volume 2019:15 Pages 309—316

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S207161

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Magnus Bäck


John M Gemery,1,2 Andrew R Forauer,1,2 Eric K Hoffer1,2
 
1Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA; 2Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA

Abstract: Experimentally induced injury triggers up-regulation and mobilization of stem cells in Apoe -/- mice that causes accelerated atherosclerosis. Abca1 -/- Abcg1-/- mice have chronic activation of stem cell up-regulation/mobilization and accelerated atherosclerosis. In addition, the Abca1 -/- Abcg1-/- mice have elevation of serum cytokines G-CSF, IL-17 and IL-23, each necessary for stem cell mobilization. IL-17 and IL-23 are elevated in two human illnesses that have cardiovascular (CV) risk independent of traditional risk factors—SLE and psoriasis. Serum G-CSF, which can be elevated in liver disease, predicts major adverse cardiovascular events in humans. These serum cytokine elevations suggest activation of the stem cell mobilization mechanism in humans that results, as in mice, in accelerated atherosclerosis. Efforts to reduce CV disease in these patient populations should include mitigation of the diseases that trigger stem cell mobilization. Since activation of the stem cell up-regulation/mobilization mechanism appears to accelerate human atherosclerosis, use of stem cells as therapy for arterial occlusive disease should distinguish between direct administration of stem cells and activation of the stem cell up-regulation/mobilization mechanism.

Keywords: stem cells, HDL, vascular disease, SLE, psoriasis, liver disease

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