A three-dimensional anatomy of the posterolateral compartment of the knee: the use of a new technology in the study of musculoskeletal anatomy
Diego Costa Astur1, Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani1, Camila Cohen Kaleka2, Wahy Jalikjian3, Pau Golano4,5, Moises Cohen1
1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, São Paulo, 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Arthroscopic and Surgical Anatomy, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics (Human Anatomy Unit), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Orthopedic Surgery Department, Pittburgh University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Background: Recently, an interest has developed in understanding the anatomy of the posterior and posterolateral knee. The posterolateral compartment of the knee corresponds to a complex arrangement of ligaments and myotendinous structures. Undiagnosed lesions in this compartment are the main reason for failure of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Understanding the anatomy of these structures is essential to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. The aim of this study was to better understand the relationship between these structures of the knee using three-dimensional technology.
Methods: Ten knees were included from cadaver lower limbs of adult patients. The skin and subcutaneous tissue were removed leaving only the muscle groups and ligaments. The neurovascular bundles and their ramifications were preserved. Images were acquired from the dissections using a Nikon D40 camera with AF-S Nikkor 18–55 mm (1:3.5 5.6 GII ED) and Micro Nikkor 105 mm (1:2.8) lenses. The pair of images were processed using Callipyan 3D and AnaBuilder software, which transforms the two images into one anaglyphic image.
Results: During the dissection of the knees, twelve pictures were acquired and transformed into anaglyphic images.
Conclusion: The use of three-dimensional images in this study demonstrates that this technique is useful to improve the knowledge in anatomy of the knee as well as for knee reconstruction surgery.
Keywords: knee joint anatomy and histology, humans, anatomy education, photography methods, education, medical methods, eyeglasses
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