A small compound spindlactone A sensitizes human endometrial cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via the inhibition of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1
Xiang-Zhai Zhao,1 Xiao-Hua Wu2,3
1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei 050051, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hebei Medical University, Hebei 050000, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shijiazhuang Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Hebei 050000, People’s Republic of China
Introduction: Spindlactone A (SPL-A) is a novel small molecule inhibitor of TACC3 that selectively inhibits the nucleation of centrosome microtubules and induces mitotic arrest in ovarian cancer cells. SPL-A is derived from dicoumarol which inhibits the activity of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which SPL-A enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in endometrial carcinoma cells.
Materials and methods: Endometrial carcinoma cells were treated with SPL-A and/or TRAIL, and the apoptosis and protein expression in the treated cells were examined.
Results: Combined treatment with SPL-A and TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in various human endometrial carcinoma cells, but not in normal human endometrial stromal cells and endometrial epithelial cells. Notably, both NQO1 inhibitor ES936 and NQO1 siRNA enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis of endometrial carcinoma cells. Furthermore, SPL-A downregulated the expression of c-FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Mcl-1, while increasing p53 expression.
Conclusion: In particular, luciferase assay showed that SPL-A inhibited Bcl-2 promoter activity, and p53 inhibitor PFT-α could reverse the effect of SPL-A on Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, Bcl-2 overexpression inhibited the apoptosis induced by SPL-A and TRAIL. Taken together, our results suggest that SPL-A sensitizes endometrial cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via the regulation of apoptosis-related proteins and the inhibition of NQO1 activity.
Keywords: dicoumarol derivative, SPL-A, endometrial carcinoma, TRAIL, Bcl-2, apoptosis, NQO1
Corrigendum for this paper has been published
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