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Virtual reality exposure-based therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of its efficacy, the adequacy of the treatment protocol, and its acceptability

Authors Botella C, Serrano B, Baños RM, Garcia-Palacios A

Received 29 May 2015

Accepted for publication 24 July 2015

Published 3 October 2015 Volume 2015:11 Pages 2533—2545


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Prof. Dr. Roumen Kirov

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder

Cristina Botella,1 Berenice Serrano,1 Rosa M Baños,2 Azucena Garcia-Palacios1

1Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 2Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Introduction: The essential feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the development of characteristic symptoms following exposure to one or more traumatic events. According to evidence-based intervention guidelines and empirical evidence, one of the most extensively researched and validated treatments for PTSD is prolonged exposure to traumatic events; however, exposure therapy can present some limitations. Virtual reality (VR) can help to improve prolonged exposure because it creates fictitious, safe, and controllable situations that can enhance emotional engagement and acceptance.
Objective: In addition to carrying out a review to evaluate the efficacy of VR exposure-based therapy (VR-EBT) for the treatment of PTSD, the aim of this study was to contribute to analyzing the use of VR-EBT by: first, evaluating the adequacy of psychological treatment protocols that use VR-EBT to treat PTSD; and second, analyzing the acceptability of VR-EBT.
Method: We performed a replica search with descriptors and databases used in two previous reviews and updated to April 2015. Next, we carried out an evaluation of the efficacy, adequacy, and acceptability of VR-EBT protocols.
Results: Results showed that VR-EBT was effective in the treatment of PTSD. The findings related to adequacy showed that not all studies using VR-EBT reported having followed the clinical guidelines for evidence-based interventions in the treatment of PTSD. Regarding acceptability, few studies evaluated this subject. However, the findings are very promising, and patients reported high acceptability and satisfaction with the inclusion of VR in the treatment of PTSD.
Conclusion: The main weaknesses identified in this review focus on the need for more controlled studies, the need to standardize treatment protocols using VR-EBT, and the need to include assessments of acceptability and related variables. Finally, this paper highlights some directions and future perspectives for using VR-EBT in PTSD treatment.

Keywords: evidence-based intervention, prolonged exposure, treatment efficacy

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Other article by this author:

An Internet-based program for depression using activity and physiological sensors: efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use

Botella C, Mira A, Moragrega I, García-Palacios A, Bretón-López J, Castilla D, Riera López del Amo A, Soler C, Molinari G, Quero S, Guillén-Botella V, Miralles I, Nebot S, Serrano B, Majoe D, Alcañiz M, Baños RM

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2016, 12:393-406

Published Date: 23 February 2016

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