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Two-year follow-up study of a group-based diabetes medical nutrition therapy and motivational interviewing intervention among African American women

Authors Miller ST, Akohoue SA

Received 27 October 2016

Accepted for publication 4 February 2017

Published 15 April 2017 Volume 2017:8 Pages 57—61

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/PROM.S125884

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Liana Bruce (formerly Castel)


Stephania T Miller,1 Sylvie A Akohoue2

1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA

Objectives:
To assess the 2-year efficacy of a combined medical nutrition therapy and motivational interviewing (MI) pilot study intervention and factors that influenced long-term dietary self-care.
Research design and methods: Pilot study participants, African American women with type 2 diabetes, completed a 2-year follow-up study visit, including clinical assessments and completion of a dietary self-care questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate differences between baseline and 2-year follow-up clinical and dietary self-care outcomes. Hierarchical coding was used to analyze semi-structured interviews and categorize facilitator and barrier themes into subthemes. Subthemes were quantified based on the number of subtheme-related comments.
Results:
Among the 12 participants (mean age 57.1±5.7 years), improvements were observed for HbA1c (baseline: 10.25%; interquartile range [IQR]: 8.10, 11.72 and follow-up: 8.8%; IQR: 7.48,10.22), systolic blood pressure (baseline: 142 mm Hg; IQR: 134.25, 157.25 and follow-up: 127 mm Hg; IQR: 113.5, 143.25), frequency of eating high-fat foods (baseline: 3.5 days; IQR: 2.75, 4.25 and follow-up: 3 days; IQR: 2.5, 4.5), and of spacing carbohydrates throughout the day (baseline: 3 days; IQR: 3.0, 4.0 and follow-up: 4 days; IQR: 1.5, 4.5). There was a statistically significant decrease (p=0.04) in the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake (baseline: 4 days; IQR: 3.75, 7.0 and follow-up: 3.5 days; IQR: 2.75, 4.0). Dietary self-care barriers and facilitators included internal (eg, motivation) and external factors (eg, social support). Motivation (70 comments) and lack of motivation (67 comments) were the most pervasive facilitator and barrier subthemes, respectively.
Conclusion: Overall, diabetes-related clinical and dietary self-care outcomes were improved following a combined medical nutritional therapy/MI intervention, and motivation played an important role in dietary self-care engagement. Future research is needed to assess the added benefit of MI in improving clinical and dietary self-care outcomes and to identify best strategies to support post-intervention dietary self-care engagement.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes, dietary self-care, motivation interviewing, African American women

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