Three-dimensional bioprinting and tissue fabrication: prospects for drug discovery and regenerative medicine
Vivian K Lee,1,2 Guohao Dai1,2
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
Abstract: Bioprinting technology has emerged as a powerful tool for building tissue and organ structures for drug discovery and regenerative medicine applications. In general, bioprinting uses a computer-controlled three-dimensional (3D) printing device to accurately deposit cells and biomaterials into precise geometries with the goal of creating anatomically correct biological structures. While traditional 3D printing uses metals, plastics, and polymers as printing materials or “ink”, bioprinting deals with living cells and biological matrix. Hence, there are significant challenges to make a transition from traditional 3D printing to bioprinting, and ultimately achieve functional outcomes in bioprinted tissues. Therefore, it is critical that there is new technology development and in-depth basic research in bioprinted tissues, such as developing novel biomaterials specifically for use in bioprinting and biofabrication techniques, understanding the cell–matrix remodeling for the desired mechanical properties, and functional outcomes, establishing proper vascular perfusion, etc. Currently, there is active research going on bioprinting technology and its potential as a future source for tissue implants. This review paper overviews the current state of the art in bioprinting technology and focuses on the outcomes of the bioprinted tissues and their potential applications in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Current challenges and limitations are highlighted, and future directions for next-generation bioprinting technology are also presented.
Keywords: 3D bioprinting, vascularization, tissue regeneration, 3D tissue model, biofabrication, regenerative medicine
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