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The Underestimated Problem of Intra-Oral Halitosis in Dental Practice: An Expert Consensus Review

Authors Renvert S, Noack MJ, Lequart C, Roldán S, Laine ML

Received 13 March 2020

Accepted for publication 27 May 2020

Published 3 July 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 251—262

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S253765

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Christopher E. Okunseri


Stefan Renvert,1– 3 Michael J Noack,4 Christophe Lequart,5 Silvia Roldán,6 Marja L Laine7

1Department of Oral Health, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden; 2School of Dental Science, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland; 3Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; 4Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 5Private practice, Sorigny, Union Française pour la Santé Bucco-Dentaire (UFSBD), Paris, France; 6ETEP (Etiology and Therapy of Periodontal Diseases) Research Group, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain; 7Department of Periodontology, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Correspondence: Stefan Renvert
Department of Oral Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden
Tel +46 0 44 2503000
Email stefan.renvert@hkr.se

Abstract: Approximately 90% of halitosis cases originate within the oral cavity (intra-oral halitosis). With a focus on intra-oral halitosis, this narrative review article provides a current summary of the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of halitosis and discusses practical considerations for healthcare professionals (HCPs), including dentists, dental hygienists, general practitioners, community pharmacists, nurses and medical specialists. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched up to 31 December 2019. Additional information was sourced from reference lists of relevant published literature. Full-text articles which reported on the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of halitosis were considered for inclusion. Halitosis affects substantial numbers of individuals globally and is an underestimated problem in dental practice. Current estimates of the prevalence of halitosis, in addition to diagnostic methods and management considerations for halitosis, are discussed. Although not a life-threatening condition, halitosis has a significant impact on patients’ quality of life and can result in psychological consequences including social, professional and affective limitations. Using a simple step-wise approach for diagnosis and treatment, dentists and dental hygienists are ideally placed to respond to an initial consultation for halitosis.

Keywords: bad breath, halitosis, intra-oral halitosis, oral health

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