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The response of human osteoblasts, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and oral bacteria to nanostructured titanium surfaces: a systematic study

Authors Miao X, Wang D, Xu L, Wang J, Zeng D, Lin S, Huang C, Liu X, Jiang X

Received 5 November 2016

Accepted for publication 2 January 2017

Published 20 February 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 1415—1430

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S126760

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Xinchao Miao, 1,2,* Donghui Wang, 3,4,* Lianyi Xu, 1,2 Jie Wang, 1,2 Deliang Zeng, 1,2 Shuxian Lin, 1,2 Cui Huang, 5 Xuanyong Liu, 3 Xinquan Jiang 1,2

1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Oral Bioengineering Lab, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 5The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: Nanotopography modification is a major focus of interest in current titanium surface design; however, the influence of the nanostructured surface on human cell/bacterium behavior has rarely been systematically evaluated. In this study, a homogeneous nanofiber structure was prepared on a titanium surface (Nano) by alkali-hydrothermal treatment, and the effects of this Nano surface on the behaviors of human MG-63 osteoblasts, human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were evaluated in comparison with a smooth titanium surface (Smooth) by polishing and a micro-rough titanium surface (Micro) by sandblasting and acid etching. In addition, the impacts of these different surface morphologies on human THP-1 macrophage polarization and Streptococcus mutans attachment were also assessed. Our findings showed that the nanostructured surface enhanced the osteogenic activity of MG-63 cells (Nano=Micro>Smooth) at the same time that it improved the attachment of HGECs (Nano>Smooth>Micro) and HGFs (Nano=Micro>Smooth). Furthermore, the surface with nanotexture did not affect macrophage polarization (Nano=Micro=Smooth), but did reduce initial bacterial adhesion (Nano<Smooth<Micro). These results suggest that the nanostructured titanium surface may promote bone and soft tissue healing, and thereby increase the success and survival of dental implants.

Keywords:
nanotopography, osteogenic differentiation, soft tissue barrier, macrophage polarization, antimicrobial effect

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