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The regenerative potential of skin and the immune system

Authors Tsepkolenko A, Tsepkolenko V, Dash S, Mishra A, Bader A, Melerzanov A, Giri S

Received 29 November 2018

Accepted for publication 22 May 2019

Published 15 July 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 519—532


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jeffrey Weinberg

Anna Tsepkolenko,1 Vladimir Tsepkolenko,1 Sabyasachi Dash,2 Apoorva Mishra,3 Augustinus Bader,4 Alexander Melerzanov,3 Shibashish Giri4,5

1Virtus Cliniс, Odessa, Ukraine; 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10044, USA; 3Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700, Russia; 4Applied Stem Cell Biology and Cell Technology, Biomedical and Biotechnological Center (BBZ), Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, D-04103, Germany; 5Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital Rechts der Isar, Munich Technical University, Munich, Germany

Abstract: Skin has the natural ability to heal and replace dead cells regulated by a network of complex immune processes. This ability is conferred by the population of resident immune cells that act in coordination with other players to provide a homeostatic environment under constant challenge. Other than providing structure and integrity, the epidermis and dermis also house distinct immune properties. The dermal part is represented by fibroblasts and endothelial cells followed by an array of immune cells which includes dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, mast cells, NK-cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, αβ T lymphocytes, B-cells and platelets. On the other hand, the functionally active immune cells in the epidermis comprise keratinocytes, DCs, NKT-cells, γδ T cells and αβ T cells (CD4+ and CD8+). Keratinocytes create a unique microenvironment for the cells of the immune system by promoting immune recognition and cellular differentiation. T lymphocytes exhibit tissue-specific tropism toward the epidermis and the lymphatic drainage system important for their function in immune regulation. This diversity in immune regulators makes the skin a unique organ to overcome pathogenic or foreign invasion. In addition, the highly coordinated molecular events make the skin an attractive model to understand and explore its regenerative potential.

Keywords: skin regeneration, immune system of skin, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, NK cells, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, αβ T lymphocytes, B cells

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