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The pain, depression, disability pathway in those with low back pain: a moderation analysis of health locus of control

Authors Campbell P, Hope K, Dunn KM

Received 12 April 2017

Accepted for publication 2 August 2017

Published 29 September 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2331—2339

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S139445

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr E. Alfonso Romero-Sandoval

Paul Campbell,1 Kate Hope,2 Kate M Dunn1

1Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, 2Keele Medical School, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UK


Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) is common, impacts on the individual and society, and is a major health concern. Psychological consequences of LBP, such as depression, are significant barriers to recovery, but mechanisms for the development of depression are less well understood. One potential mechanism is the individual’s health locus of control (HLoC), that is, perception of the level of control an individual has over their health. The objective of this study is to investigate the moderation effect of HLoC on the pain–depression–disability pathway in those with LBP. The design is a nested cross-sectional analysis of two existing cohorts of patients (n=637) who had previously consulted their primary care physician about LBP. Measures were taken of HLoC, pain intensity and interference, depression, disability, and bothersomeness. Structural Equation Modeling analysis was applied to two path models that examined the pain to depression to disability pathway moderated by the HLoC constructs of Internality and Externality, respectively. Critical ratio (CR) difference tests were applied to the coefficients using pairwise comparisons. The results show that both models had an acceptable model fit and pathways were significant. CR tests indicated a significant moderation effect, with stronger pathway coefficients for depression for those who report low Internality (β 0.48), compared to those with high Internality (β 0.28). No moderation effects were found within the Externality model. HLoC Internality significantly moderates the pain–depression pathway in those with LBP, meaning that those who have a low perception of control report greater levels of depression. HLoC may signify depression among people with LBP, and could potentially be a target for intervention.

Keywords: low back pain, health locus of control, moderation, depression, disability, Structural Equation Modeling

Creative Commons License This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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