The development of a nomogram to predict post-radiation necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: a large-scale cohort study
Authors Li XY, Sun XS, Liu SL, Chen QY, Guo SS, Liu LT, Yan JJ, Xie HJ, Tang QN, Liang YJ, Guo L, Tang LQ, Mai HQ
Received 11 December 2018
Accepted for publication 30 April 2019
Published 8 July 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 6253—6263
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Rituraj Purohit
Xiao-Yun Li,1,2,* Xue-Song Sun,1,2,* Sai-Lan Liu,1,2,* Qiu-Yan Chen,1,2 Shan-Shan Guo,1,2 Li-Ting Liu,1,2 Jin-Jie Yan,1,2 Hao-Jun Xie,1,2 Qing-Nan Tang,1,2 Yu-Jing Liang,1,2 Ling Guo,1,2 Lin-Quan Tang,1,2,* Hai-Qiang Mai1,2,*
1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Objective: This study aimed to establish a nomogram to predict the risk of post-radiation necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients.
Background: This study was performed to identify influencing factors for developing post-radiation necrosis, and to establish an effective nomogram model to predict individual risks in NPC patients.
Methods: 7144 NPC patients receiving radical radiotherapy from 2007 to 2012 were involved in the study, and 207 of them developed nasopharyngeal necrosis (NPN). The clinical characteristics and baseline laboratory results were collected and analyzed. Independent predictive factors were selected using the Cox proportional model and incorporated into the nomogram. The receiver operating characteristic curve and the calibration curve were used to verify discrimination and calibration.
Results: The experience of re-irradiation contributed most to the occurrence of NPN (HR, 15.56, 95% CI 10.84–22.35, p<0.001). Clinical factors including age, pathology type, history of diabetes, and original T stage were independent predictors of NPN. Factors reflecting patients’ baseline nutritional and inflammatory status such as hemoglobin, albumin, and C-reactive protein were also significantly associated with the development of NPN. With all independent predictive factors incorporated, a nomogram was generated, and it showed excellent discrimination and calibration.
Conclusion: This study was the first large-scale cohort study focusing on the development of NPN and established a nomogram to predict its occurrence based on the clinical and laboratory indicators. The nomogram demonstrated good discriminative capacity and satisfactory agreement, which would offer valuable clues for clinicians to distinguish the high-risk NPN population and maintain close surveillance.
Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, necrosis, radiotherapy, adverse effect
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