Synchronous cecal adenocarcinoma and multiple colonic in situ carcinomas in hamartomatous polyps in a case of isolated Peutz–Jeghers syndrome
Yahia Z Gad1, Doaa H Bakr1, Mohammad G El-Ebeidy2
1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Background: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A Peutz–Jeghers polyp (PJP) in a patient without pigmentation or a family history of the disease is called an isolated or solitary PJP. Individuals with PJS carry a very high risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI) as well as extra-GI malignancies. This case report documents lesion multiplicity and their malignant potential in a young patient with PJS presenting in a serious condition for the first time.
Case report: An 18-year-old female Egyptian patient was admitted with hematochezia and remarkable anemia. After appropriate resuscitation and consent, colonoscopic evaluation revealed seven pedunculated colonic polyps at the ascending and the transverse colon, and numerous variable-sized sessile polyps were scattered all over the colon. To establish hemostasis, endoscopic polypectomy for pedunculated polyps and argon plasma photocoagulation for the bleeding sessile polyps were performed. Histopathological examination revealed cecal adenocarcinoma in one specimen and two simultaneous in situ carcinoma at the transverse and the sigmoid colon in the mucosae of the excised histologically proven hamartomatous polyps. Additionally, one focal in situ carcinoma in the resected colon was detected.
Conclusions: When considering the family history, serious GI neoplastic lesions may be unmasked in young patients with PJS who present with hematochezia, even in the absence of its characteristic mucocutaneous pigmented lesions. GI endoscopic surveillance programs should be adopted for diagnosed cases of PJS and their families. Genetic prenatal screening for early detection is the best option for primary prevention.
Keywords: isolated, Peutz–Jeghers syndrome, hematochezia
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