Success of nutrition-therapy interventions in persons with type 2 diabetes: challenges and future directions
Authors Franz MJ, MacLeod J
Received 19 February 2018
Accepted for publication 20 March 2018
Published 11 June 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 265—270
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Ming-Hui Zou
Marion J Franz,1 Janice MacLeod2
1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Minneapolis, MN, 2Clinical Innovation, WellDoc, Columbia, MD, USA
Abstract: A systematic review was conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to determine the evidence for the effectiveness of individualized nutrition therapy provided by a dietitian nutritionist and evidence-based (EB) nutrition-therapy interventions in adults with diabetes. This article briefly reviews the systematic process used and summarizes the effectiveness evidence and intervention recommendations. In persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 18 studies met study criteria for the effectiveness question. A 0.3%–2.0% decrease from baseline in glycated hemoglobin was reported at 3 months in 13 study arms, a 0.3%–1.8% decrease at 6 months in 12 study arms, a 0.3%–1.6% decrease at 12 months with ongoing support in six study arms, and a 0.6%–1.8% decrease at >12 months in four study arms. An initial series of encounters with follow-up visits and implementation of a variety of nutrition-therapy interventions, all of which reduced energy intake, were reported. Nutrition therapy also significantly decreased doses or number of glucose-lowering medications used and resulted in improvements in quality of life. Mixed effects on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight were reported. Fourteen questions were identified related to nutrition-therapy interventions. A total of 38 studies met study criteria for the nutrition-intervention questions, from which 30 conclusion statements and 19 nutrition-practice guideline recommendations for T2D were written. Three additional NPG recommendations for T2D were written based on evidence reviewed by the American Diabetes Association. The 22 nutrition-intervention recommendations for T2D are summarized. How to implement nutrition-practice guideline recommendations effectively by health care providers and individuals with T2D remains challenging. Of importance, it is recognized that identifying and integrating EB digital health-technology tools into clinical practice are major challenges for future management of diabetes, self-management education, and support.
Keywords: nutrition therapy, dietitian nutritionists, systematic review, effectiveness, interventions, implementation, technology
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