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Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

Authors Vrbova K, Prasko J, Holubova M, Kamaradova D, Ociskova M, Marackova M, Latalova K, Grambal A, Slepecky M, Zatkova M

Received 21 August 2016

Accepted for publication 30 September 2016

Published 24 November 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 3011—3020

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S120298

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder


Kristyna Vrbova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Milos Slepecky,3 Marta Zatkova3

1
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors.
Patients and methods: A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder) according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S]) and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]). Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients.
Results: The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, the severity of the disorder rated by a psychiatrist, and the difference between the objective rating and the subjective rating of the severity of the disorder.
Conclusion: Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, who have undergone a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, who dispose of a higher severity of the disorder and show a higher discrepancy between their rating of the severity and the psychiatric rating, showed a greater degree of self-stigma. The management of self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia should be implemented in the routine care.

Keywords: schizophrenia, self-stigma, duration of the treatment, number of hospitalizations

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