Scavenger receptor class B member 1 protein: hepatic regulation and its effects on lipids, reverse cholesterol transport, and atherosclerosis
Anthony P Kent, Ioannis M Stylianou
Department of Medicine and Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Abstract: Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI, also known as SCARB1) is the primary receptor for the selective uptake of cholesterol from high-density lipoprotein (HDL). SR-BI is present in several key tissues; however, its presence and function in the liver is deemed the most relevant for protection against atherosclerosis. Cholesterol is transferred from HDL via SR-BI to the liver, which ultimately results in the excretion of cholesterol via bile and feces in what is known as the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Much of our knowledge of SR-BI hepatic function and regulation is derived from mouse models and in vitro characterization. Multiple independent regulatory mechanisms of SR-BI have been discovered that operate at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review we summarize the critical discoveries relating to hepatic SR-BI cholesterol metabolism, atherosclerosis, and regulation of SR-BI, as well as alternative functions that may indirectly affect atherosclerosis.
Keywords: SR-BI, SCARB1, lipids, atherosclerosis, CAD, mouse models