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Rotavirus infection beyond the gut

Authors Gómez-Rial J, Sánchez-Batán S, Rivero-Calle I, Pardo-Seco J, Martinón-Martínez JM, Salas A, Martinón-Torres F

Received 21 September 2018

Accepted for publication 6 November 2018

Published 24 December 2018 Volume 2019:12 Pages 55—64

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S186404

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Sahil Khanna


José Gómez-Rial,1,2 Sonia Sánchez-Batán,2 Irene Rivero-Calle,1,3 Jacobo Pardo-Seco,1 José María Martinón-Martínez,1 Antonio Salas,1,4,5 Federico Martinón-Torres1,3

1Grupo de Investigación en Genética, Vacunas, Infecciones y Pediatría (GENVIP), Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Galicia, Spain; 2Laboratorio de Inmunología, Servicio de Análisis Clínicos, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Galicia, Spain; 3Translational Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Galicia, Spain; 4Unidade de Xenética, Departamento de Anatomía Patolóxica e Ciencias Forense, Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain; 5GenPoB Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (SERGAS), Galicia, Spain

Abstract: The landscape of rotavirus (RV) infection has changed substantially in recent years. Autoimmune triggering has been added to clinical spectrum of this pathology, which is now known to be much broader than diarrhea. The impact of RV vaccines in these other conditions is becoming a growing field of research. The importance of host genetic background in RV susceptibility has been revealed, therefore increasing our understanding of vaccine effectiveness and giving some clues about the limited efficacy of RV vaccines in low-income settings. Also, interaction of RV with intestinal microbiota seems to play a key role in the process of infection vaccine effect. This article reviews current findings on the extraintestinal impact of RV infection and their widening clinical picture, and the recently described mechanisms of host susceptibility to infection and vaccine effectiveness. RV infection is a systemic disease with clinical and pathophysiological implications beyond the gut. We propose an “iceberg” model for this pathology with almost hidden clinical implications away from the gastrointestinal tract and eventually triggering the development of autoimmune diseases. Impact of current vaccines is being influenced by host genetics and gut microbiota interactions and these factors must be taken into account in the development of public health programs.

Keywords: rotavolution, extraintestinal, seizures, vaccines, autoimmunity
 
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