Back to Journals » Research and Reports in Urology » Volume 12

Risk Factors for Prostate Volume Progression After Prostate-Transurethral Resection

Authors Duarsa GWK, Dau DO, Pramana IBP, Tirtayasa PMW, Yudiana IW, Santosa KB, Oka AAG, Mahadewa TGB, Ryalino C

Received 14 February 2020

Accepted for publication 20 April 2020

Published 5 May 2020 Volume 2020:12 Pages 175—178


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli

Gede Wirya Kusuma Duarsa,1 Daniel Oktavianus Dau,1 Ida Bagus Putra Pramana,1 Pande Made Wisnu Tirtayasa,1 I Wayan Yudiana,1 Kadek Budi Santosa,1 Anak Agung Gde Oka,1 Tjokorda Gde Bagus Mahadewa,1 Christopher Ryalino2

1Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia

Correspondence: Gede Wirya Kusuma Duarsa
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia

Background: Many factors could contribute to the cases of residual benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) volume after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), such as age, obesity, testosterone level, and inflammation. The goal of this study was to determine the risk of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in prostate tissue, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), serum testosterone, and age in promoting prostate volume progression after TURP.
Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study on 83 BPH patients who underwent TURP at five hospitals in Bali, Indonesia. Trans-rectal ultrasonography (TRUS) was carried out to examine the prostate’s size. Three years after, we redo the TRUS examination to collect the data of the latest prostate size. TNF-α, TGF-β, serum PSA, testosterone, and age were registered for analysis. We used Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation tests and multivariate analytic linear regression test (coefficient β) by SPSS 13.0 software.
Results: Age, testosterone, PSA, TNF-α, TGF-β were positively correlated to prostate’s volume progression. The prostate volume was strongly correlated with age (r= 0.749, p < 0.001), PSA level (r=0.896, p < 0.001), testosterone level (r=0.818, p < 0.001), and TGF-β (r=0.609, p < 0.001). The TNF-α level has a weak correlation to prostate’s volume progression (r=0.392, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: TNF-α, TGF-β, PSA, testosterone, and age were significant as the risk factors in promoting the prostate volume progression after TURP.

Keywords: age, testosterone, PSA, TNF-α, TGF-β, BPH, TURP

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]