Regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis in regularly dividing cells
Ribal S Darwish
Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Abstract: The balance between cell survival and death is essential for normal development and homeostasis of organisms. Apoptosis is a distinct type of cell death with ultrastructural features that are consistent with an active, inherently controlled process. Abnormalities and dysregulation of apoptosis contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple disease processes. Apoptosis is strictly regulated by several positive and negative feedback mechanisms that regulate cell death and determine the final outcome after cell exposure to apoptotic stimuli. Mitochondria and caspases are central components of the regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis. Recently, noncaspase pathways of apoptosis have been explored through the studies of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G. Multiple difficulties in the apoptosis research relate to apoptosis detection and imaging. This article reviews current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis.
Keywords: caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor, apoptosis inhibitory proteins, cytochrome c, mitochondria
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