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Psychometric Properties of the General Anxiety Disorders-7 Scale Using Categorical Data Methods: A Study in a Sample of University Attending Ethiopian Young Adults

Authors Manzar MD, Alghadir AH, Anwer S, Alqahtani M, Salahuddin M, Addo HA, Jifar WW, Alasmee NA

Received 5 December 2020

Accepted for publication 18 February 2021

Published 22 March 2021 Volume 2021:17 Pages 893—903

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S295912

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Yuping Ning


Md Dilshad Manzar,1 Ahmad H Alghadir,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,2,3 Mazen Alqahtani,4 Mohammed Salahuddin,5,6 Habtamu Acho Addo,5 Wakuma Wakene Jifar,7 Nofaa Ali Alasmee8

1Department of Nursing, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia; 2Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 4Department of Physiotherapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Mizan-Tepi University (Mizan Campus), Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia; 6Pharmacology Division, Department of BioMolecular Sciences, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA; 7Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Science, Mettu University, Metu, Ethiopia; 8Faculty of Nursing, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Shahnawaz Anwer Email [email protected]

Background: Few studies have investigated the psychometric validation of the General Anxiety Disorders-7 Scale (GAD-7) using appropriate data assumptions. This study examined the reliability, factorial validity, divergent validity, and item analysis of the GAD-7 using categorical data methods in a sample of Ethiopian young adults.
Methods: A sample of 270 students in the age group (18– 20 years) was recruited during February-May of 2017 in this cross-sectional study using simple random sampling. The participants completed a tool for socio-demographic details, the GAD-7, and the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10).
Results: The cumulative variance rule (> 40%), the scree test, Kaiser’s criteria (Eigenvalues > 1), and the parallel analysis found a 1-factor model for the GAD-7 (factor loadings, 0.38 to 0.63). Fit indices suggested a 1-factor model: the tests applied included the weighted root mean square residual (0.030), comparative fit index (1.000), the goodness of fit index (1.00), root mean square error of approximation (0.037) and the non-normed fit index (1.00). McDonald’s Omega (0.772) implied that the scores had adequate internal consistency. Divergent validity was supported by significant but weak correlations that were found between the GAD-7 and PSS-10 scores (r = 0.11 to 0.25, p< 0.05).
Conclusion: The psychometric validity of the GAD-7 in Ethiopian university attending young adults was supported by the categorical data method.

Keywords: anxiety, Africa, stress, McDonald’s omega, factor analysis

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