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Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacogenetics: In Silico Prediction of Drug Effects in Treatments for Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV2 Disease

Authors Cafiero C, Re A, Micera A, Palmirotta R, Monaco D, Romano F, Fabrizio C, Di Francia R, Cacciamani A, Surico PL, D'Amato G, Pisconti S

Received 12 July 2020

Accepted for publication 9 September 2020

Published 13 October 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 463—484


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Martin Bluth

Concetta Cafiero,1,* Agnese Re,2,* Alessandra Micera,3,* Raffaele Palmirotta,4 Delio Monaco,5 Francesca Romano,6 Claudia Fabrizio,7 Raffaele Di Francia,8 Andrea Cacciamani,3 Pier Luigi Surico,9 Gerardo D’Amato,10 Salvatore Pisconti1

1Medical Oncology, SG Moscati Hospital, Taranto, Italy; 2CNR-IASI, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 3Research Laboratories in Ophthalmology, IRCCS — Fondazione Bietti, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Biomedical Sciences and Clinical Oncology, Oncogenomic Research Center, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 5Radiology, SG Moscati Hospital, Taranto, Italy; 6Department of Precision Medicine, Luigi Vanvitelli University of Campania, Napoli, Italy; 7Infectious Disease Unit, SG Moscati Hospital, Taranto, Italy; 8Italian Association of Pharmacogenomics and Molecular Diagnostics, Ancona, Italy; 9Oncology and Hematology Department, F Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy; 10Endocrine and Metabolic Surgery, A Gemelli Polyclinic Foundation, Rome, Italy

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Alessandra Micera
Research Laboratories in Ophthalmology, IRCCS — Fondazione Bietti, 6 via di Santo Stefano Rotondo, Rome 00184, Italy
Tel +39-06-4554-1191
Raffaele Palmirotta
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Clinical Oncology, Oncogenomic Research Center, Aldo Moro University of Bari, Italy

Abstract: The latest developments in precision medicine allow the modulation of therapeutic approaches in different pathologies on the basis of the specific molecular characterization of the patient. This review of the literature coupled with in silico analysis was to provide a selected screening of interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and drugs (repurposed, investigational, and biological agents) showing efficacy and toxicityin counteracting Covid-19 infection. In silico analysis of genetic variants related to each drug was performed on such databases as PharmGKB, Ensembl Genome Browser,, and SNPedia, with an extensive literature review of papers (to May 10, 2020) on Covid-19 treatments using Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PharmGKB, and Google Scholar. The clinical relevance of SNPs, known as both drug targets and markers, considering genetic variations with known drug responses, and the therapeutic consequences are discussed. In the context of clinical treatment of Covid-19, including infection prevention, control measures, and supportive care, this review highlights the importance of a personalized approach in the final selection of therapy, which is probably essential in the management of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV2, drug effects, pharmacogenomics, pharmacogenetics, in silico, ADR

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