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Patterns of admission and factors associated with neonatal mortality among neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

Authors Demisse AG, Alemu F, Gizaw MA, Tigabu Z

Received 15 December 2016

Accepted for publication 28 February 2017

Published 12 May 2017 Volume 2017:8 Pages 57—64


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Roosy Aulakh

Abayneh Girma Demisse, Fentahun Alemu, Mahlet Abayneh Gizaw, Zemene Tigabu

School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Introduction: The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant completing many of the physiologic adjustments required for life outside the uterus. As a result, there are high rates of morbidity and mortality. The three major causes of mortality in developing countries include prematurity, infection, and perinatal asphyxia. The aim of this study was to identify the patterns of neonatal admission and factors associated with mortality among neonates admitted at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of University of Gondar Hospital.
Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among all admitted neonates in the NICU of University of Gondar referral hospital from December 1, 2015 to August 31, 2016. Information was extracted retrospectively during admission from patient records and death certificates, using a pretested questionnaire. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20, and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 769 neonates was included in the study. There were 448 (58.3%) male neonates, and 398 (51.8%) neonates were rural residents. More than two-thirds of the 587 deliveries (76.3%) were performed in tertiary hospitals. Neonatal morbidity included hypothermia 546 (71%), sepsis 522 (67.9%), prematurity 250 (34.9%), polycythemia 242 (31.5%), hypoglycemia 142 (18.5), meconium aspiration syndrome 113 (14.7%), and perinatal asphyxia 96 (12.5%). The overall mortality was 110 (14.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.9–16.9) of which 69 (62.7%) deaths occurred in the first 24 hours of age. In the multivariate analysis, mortality was associated with perinatal asphyxia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.97; 95% CI: 3.06–11.64), instrumental delivery (AOR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.08–8.31), and early onset neonatal sepsis (AOR: 2.66; 95% CI: 1.62–6.11).
Conclusion: Hypothermia, sepsis, and prematurity were the main reasons for NICU admission. Neonates often died within the first 24 hours of age. Implementing a better referral link and timely intervention could decrease neonatal mortality and morbidities in Gondar, Ethiopia.

Keywords: neonatal sepsis, hypothermia, neonatal mortality, neonatal admission

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