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Oral administration of encapsulated bovine lactoferrin protein nanocapsules against intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii

Authors Anand N, Sehgal R, Kanwar RK, Dubey ML, Vasishta RK, Kanwar JR

Received 23 March 2015

Accepted for publication 18 July 2015

Published 8 October 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 6355—6369

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S85286

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Namrata Anand,1 Rakesh Sehgal,1 Rupinder Kaur Kanwar,2 Mohan Lal Dubey,1 Rakesh Kumar Vasishta,3 Jagat Rakesh Kanwar2

1Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 2Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Centre for Molecular and Medical Research, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is a deadly intracellular parasite known to reside in every nucleated cell and known to cause severe complications in immunocompromised host. Standard drugs are cost effective and cause side effects, therefore, there is a necessity for a new drug molecule with immunomodulatory potential. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a natural milk protein, which has shown antimicrobial properties in its nanoformulation using alginate chitosan calcium phosphate bovine lactoferrin nanocapsules (AEC-CCo-CP-bLf-NCs). The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the effect of bovine Lf (bLf) in its native as well as nanoformulation (AEC-CCo-CP-bLf-NC) against coccidian parasite T. gondii. In vitro analysis has shown a significant increase in nitric oxide production and low parasitemia in in vitro cell culture model. In vivo BALB/c mice model have been used to develop human toxoplasmosis model. After treatment with NCs it has substantially increased the bioavailability of the protein and showed comparatively increased levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide production, and Th1 cytokine which helped in parasite clearance. The mechanism of action of NCs has been clarified by immunoreactivity analysis, which showed accumulation of Lf in macrophages of various visceral organs, which is the site of parasite multiplication. Effect of NCs has significantly decreased (P<0.05) the parasite load in various organs and helped survival of mice till day 25 postinfection. Fe metabolism inside the mice has been found to be maintained even after administration of mono form of Lf, this indicates novelty of Lf protein. From the present study we concluded that nanoformulation did not reduce the therapeutic potential of Lf protein; however, nanoformulation has enhanced the stability of the protein and shown anti-toxoplasmal activity. Our study presents for the first time nanoformulation of Lf protein against Toxoplasma, which has advantages over the standard drug therapy without any side effects.

Keywords: nanocapsules, oral delivery, cytokines, Toxoplasma gondii, ceramic nanocapsules and reactive oxygen species, immunoreactivity, parasite load

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