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Oncolytic virotherapy including Rigvir and standard therapies in malignant melanoma

Authors Babiker HM, Riaz IB, Husnain M, Borad MJ

Received 8 September 2016

Accepted for publication 20 December 2016

Published 9 February 2017 Volume 2017:6 Pages 11—18

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OV.S100072

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati


Hani M Babiker,1 Irbaz Bin Riaz,2 Muhammad Husnain,2 Mitesh J Borad3,4

1University of Arizona Cancer Center, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, 3Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Scottsdale, AZ, 4Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Abstract:
The treatment of metastatic melanoma has evolved from an era where interferon and chemotherapy were the mainstay of treatments to an era where immunotherapy has become the frontline. Ipilimumab (IgG1 CTLA-4 inhibitor), nivolumab (IgG4 PD-1 inhibitor), pembrolizumab (IgG4 PD-1 inhibitor) and nivolumab combined with ipilimumab have become first-line therapies in patients with metastatic melanoma. In addition, the high prevalence of BRAF mutations in melanoma has led to the discovery and approval of targeted molecules, such as vemurafenib (BRAF kinase inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor), as they yielded improved responses and survival in malignant melanoma patients. This is certainly a burgeoning time in immunotherapy drug development, and the aforementioned efforts along with the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), a recombinant oncolytic herpes virus, have paved the way to exploring the role of additional oncolytic viruses, such as the echovirus Rigvir, as new and innovative treatment modalities in patients with melanoma. Herein, we discuss the current standard of care treatment in melanoma with an emphasis on immunotherapy and oncolytic viruses in development.

Keywords: melanoma, virotherapy, Rigvir

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